A mechanical device that is used to reduce the consumption of energy is referred to as an economizer. Sometimes the device is used to perform a different function within the machine. Preheating of a fluid is an example of an important function for which the device can be used. The main essence of using the device is to reduce the amount of energy that is being consumed in an industrial process. In industry, the device has found usage in many processes such as boilers, air conditioning, power plant processes, ventilation and heating. Economizers are generally regarded as heat exchangers.
An economizerhas found wide usage in boilers, where it functions as a heat exchanger that is used to heat fluids. In most cases, the device will heat a fluid such as water to a temperature that is slightly below the boiling point of the fluid. The device makes use of the heat contained in the hot fluids to preheat the fluids so that they can reach the temperature of the boiler or a temperature that is just slightly less. In this way, the device is able to increase the efficiency of the boiler to very high levels. This is very important because it helps to save a lot of energy because the boiler does less work on heating the incoming water from the condenser.
An industrial economizer is used to reduce energy consumption in industrial processes. Many industrial economizers have been used to reduce the amount of energy that is lost during the heating process. The boiler process that has been described above is the commonest use of the economizers in the industry. Since energy sources usually tend to be expensive, the importance of economizers in the industry cannot be overemphasized. Economizers are also used in the air conditioners to save energy by making use of the cool air outside to cool interior space.